This statistical exercise helps provide an understanding of the consequences of current demographic patterns of unintended pregnancy and subsequent childbearing. Abortion as a Consequence Of Unintended Pregnancy As the Chapter 2 discussed, about half of all unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Accordingly, the occurrence of abortion can be seen as one of the primary consequences of unintended pregnancy. Voluntary interruption of pregnancy is an ancient and enduring intervention that occurs globally whether it is legal or not.
CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio. Among mothers with low and middle educational levels, the association between an unplanned pregnancy and the risk of cognitive delay vanished as soon as the socioeconomic variables were included Models 2, 3, and 4.
Even if reassuring results have been exhibited on the validity of retrospective assessments of pregnancy intention 33it cannot be ruled out that mothers might rationalize an unplanned pregnancy as planned after the birth of the child 3435which could lead to an undercounting of unplanned pregnancies.
The proportion of unplanned pregnancies was strongly associated in this study with family socioeconomic disadvantages, in accordance with the literature 89.
This high rate of reported happiness could reflect the fact that in developed countries, women with unplanned pregnancies about which they are unhappy often terminate them and thus are not included in birth samples.
Such selection could be socially differentiated, with a higher probability of abortion among advantaged women Less happy mothers also might be more likely to refuse to participate in a cohort study on their children, which would lead to an underrepresentation of less-intended pregnancies in such cohorts.
However, it is possible that some more-delayed children had been excluded from this analysis, among those 1, children who had not attempted or finished the Bracken. This confirms the suspicion that children with no Bracken score at age 3 years were disproportionately cognitively delayed as well as socially disadvantaged.
The risk of cognitive delay varied strongly with planning status: A few studies have concluded that unwanted pregnancies could have stronger impact than mistimed pregnancies on maternal health behavior during the pregnancy 2339 In the present study, we were not able to distinguish between mistimed and unwanted pregnancies.
In multivariate analyses Model 4the 2 unplanned groups presented very similar results.
Within the 3 social groups, the risk of cognitive delay increased when the pregnancy was unplanned. When the mother had a low or middle level of education, the association between unplanned pregnancy and child cognitive delay seemed to be explained entirely by its correlation with family socioeconomic circumstances.
For these children, the association was due only partly to confounding with socioeconomic circumstances. When parenting behavior variables were introduced, the odds ratio diminished only moderately from 1.
The Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) (42 U.S.C.A. §g), as amended by the Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of , defines child abuse and neglect as, at minimum: (1) Any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse. The final three sections address additional consequences of unintended pregnancy. The third section analyzes a complex set of studies in which the intendedness of pregnancy itself is related to a variety of outcomes for both the child (such as birthweight and cognitive development) and parents (such as educational achievement). Does it matter whether a pregnancy is unintended at the time of conception—mistimed or unwanted altogether? There is a presumption that it does—that unintended pregnancy has a major impact on numerous social, economic, and cultural aspects of modern life.
Thus, parenting behavior mediated only very partially the relation between unplanned pregnancy and child cognitive development among mothers with a high educational level.
Indeed, the mediation of parenting behavior seemed much more limited in these results than had been hypothesized in the introduction. This association remained unexplained, in as much as the introduction of 13 parenting behavior variables did not explain fully the relation between unplanned pregnancy and child cognitive delay in the most advantaged group.
This significant relation was observed only for delayed and not for advanced cognitive development data not shownwhich suggests a nonlinear relation over the whole spectrum of child development.
As mentioned previously, it cannot be ruled out that the association was overestimated because of the exclusion of children who did not complete the Bracken Assessment. Under the hypothesis that children who did not complete the Bracken were actually all delayed, the odds ratio for mothers with a high educational level was significant in Models 1 to 3 but was not significant in Model 4 with a borderline result:Unwanted and abusive childhood experiences are never disconnected from the rest of a child’s life.
So the consequences can be quite complex – and take time to . Psychological abuse of a child is a pattern of intentional verbal or behavioral actions or lack of actions that convey to a child the message that he or she is worthless, flawed, unloved, unwanted, endangered, or only of value to meet someone else's needs.
Withholding emotional support, isolation, or terrorizing a child are forms of. Apr 19, · Sexual abuse is unwanted sexual activity, with perpetrators using force, making threats or taking advantage of victims not able to give consent.
Most victims and perpetrators know each other. Immediate reactions to sexual abuse include shock, fear or disbelief. Long-term symptoms include anxiety.
The unwanted child: Effects on mothers and children of refused applications for abortion. In Society, Stress, and Disease.
Oxford: Oxford Medical Publications; Page 6 Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect. The consequences of maltreatment can be devastating.
Experiencing abuse and neglect in childhood can lead to adverse outcomes in adulthood. The purpose of this resource is to indicate the potential long-term effects of child abuse and neglect that may extend into adulthood. Consequences of Child Abuse, Recovered Memories and Sexual Abuse of Boys are subsections containing several pages each. There is a lot of breadth and depth here, both in the scope of information provided and the complexities and subtleties that I sometimes address. Having more research on the effects of child abuse and neglect in women makes it difficult to compare differences between men and women as less is known on the effects of child abuse and neglect on men (Springer et al., ; Widom, DuMont et al., ).
For over 30 years, clinicians have described the effects of child abuse and neglect on the physical, psychological, cognitive, and behavioral development of children.
Experiencing abuse and neglect in childhood can lead to adverse outcomes in adulthood. The purpose of this resource is to indicate the potential long-term effects of child abuse and neglect that may extend into adulthood.