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If American teachers in struggling U. But does the room actually contain the elephant? Poverty is related to lower levels of student learning. The poverty rate in the United States is substantially higher than the rates in countries with which it is compared.
Is Poverty Related to Lackluster Learning? To this first question, the answer is obviously in the affirmative. As can be seen in Figure 1a, states with higher percentages of students from low-income families report lower average scale scores in 8th-grade math on the National Assessment of Educational Progress NAEP.
The same connection between poverty and academic performance can be observed at the school level see Figure 1b. Why do kids from low-income families tend to score so much lower on average than their more-affluent peers?
Is it something about poverty itself, that is, a lack of financial resources in the family? Poverty is associated with a host of other social ills that have a negative impact on learning. For instance, children in poverty are much more likely to be living in single-parent families headed by young, poorly educated mothers.
Poverty is also associated with higher rates of alcoholism and The uses of poverty essay substance abuse in the home; greater incidence of child abuse and neglect; and heightened family involvement in the criminal justice system.
So, yes, in general, poverty and factors correlated with low family income are strongly related to low test scores.
The next question is whether U. The problem is complicated because no international data set contains both good measures of family income and good measures of student test-score performance. Not everyone will agree with the way the ESCS index is constructed, but the data presented in Figure 2 are nonetheless quite instructive.
The test scores of students in the bottom quartile of the ESCS index are plotted against those of students in the top quartile. If students in these two quartiles did equally well in each country as compared to similarly situated students in other countriesthen the dotted regression line displayed in green would have a steeper slope, and every dot would fall exactly on that line.
As you can see, the actual pattern is not that perfect, as some countries, such as Belgium and France, are relatively better at teaching the higher-status students, while other countries, such as Canada and Finland, do relatively well at instructing students from lower-status families.
But notice that the United States falls almost exactly on the regression line. It does equally well or equally poorly, if you prefer at teaching its least well-off as those coming from families in the top quartile of the ESCS index.
If we look at a different marker of socioeconomic status, parental education levels, we find a similar pattern. In a study that examined whether some countries are particularly effective at teaching students from disadvantaged backgrounds, Eric A.
Peterson, and Ludger Woessmann find little difference in the rank order of countries by the performance of students from families where a parent had a college education and the rank order of countries by the performance of students whose parents had no more than a high school diploma.
They find that if a country is comparatively effective at teaching the first group, it tends to be no less effective as compared to others at teaching the second. The United States performs as expected, proving not to be especially effective at teaching students from the best-educated or the least-educated families.
The authors write, Overall, the U. That ranking is somewhat lower for students from advantaged backgrounds 28th than for those from disadvantaged ones 20th.
But if more students are poor in the U. If that is true, poverty could still be the elephant in the classroom. But does the U. For those educators quoted at the beginning of this essay, the answer is yes.
They assert that the U. The measure excludes any income from governmental transfers. For some states, whether one looks at relative poverty or at absolute poverty makes little difference. Arizona, Mississippi, and Louisiana have a lot of poor people however you slice the data.
But notice where wealthier states like Massachusetts and Connecticut appear on the graph. Their absolute poverty rates are among the lowest in the country. But their relative poverty rates are above average—higher than Texas, Tennessee, and Oklahoma.
Massachusetts has a higher relative poverty rate than Georgia, Kentucky, and Alabama. The same dynamic plays out when we use relative poverty rates to compare countries.
Many of the U. Using data, Timothy Smeeding, founder of the Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg, reports absolute poverty using a methodology that takes into account all forms of income, including social welfare benefits see Figure 3.Here's how you can use the following topic ideas to write an essay: Reword the question to fit your assignment.
Use a question for your topic idea helps keep you organized. Jul 07, · Although slavery of African-Americans in the United States has been abolished for many years now, the psychological and emotional stresses have been placed upon African-Americans who still struggle to deal with the trauma of slavery.
The main focus of this book is on the causation of starvation in general and of famines in particular. The author develops the alternative method of analysis--the 'entitlement approach'--concentrating on ownership and exchange, not on food supply. The Functions of Poverty First, the existence of poverty ensures that society’s “dirty work” will be done.
Every society has such work: physically dirty or dangerous, temporary, dead-end and underpaid, undignified and menial jobs. The first three stats come from a report by UK-based Centre for Food Policy, Thames Valley University and UK Public Health Association, titled Why health is the key for the future of farming and food, January 24, See page 10, Table 1 for the data.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money. Poverty is a multifaceted concept, which may include social, economic, and political elements. Absolute poverty, extreme poverty, or destitution refers to the complete lack of the means necessary to meet basic personal needs such as food, clothing and shelter.