Rochester Institute of Technology The causes of conformity among individuals have long been debated and researched in recent decades. The research examined for this piece fits the categories of a model proposed to explain the five main motivational reasons to conform: This piece will attempt to gather evidence for these five motivations using modern research findings. Many people imagine themselves as unique individuals unlike anyone else; indeed, we all possess specific characteristics that distinguish us from the crowd.
Rochester Institute of Technology The causes of conformity among individuals have long been debated and researched in recent decades.
The research examined for this piece fits the categories of a model proposed to explain the five main motivational reasons to conform: This piece will attempt to gather evidence for these five motivations using modern research findings.
Many people imagine themselves as unique individuals unlike anyone else; indeed, we all possess specific characteristics that distinguish us from the crowd.
However, despite our imaginations and wishful thinking, the majority of human beings comply with some set of societal rules most of the time. Cars stop at red traffic lights; children and adults attend school and go to work; policemen are paid to protect our communities.
These are examples of conformity for obvious reasons; without compliance with certain rules of society, the entire structure would break down. Why, though, do individuals give in to less important reasons to conform?
Why do college students play drinking games and elementary school children shun the outcast child? Correctness Simply put, individuals strive to be accurate and correct in their judgments and observations; they often rely on social cues around them to aid in interpreting a given situation.
An important study examined how an individual's motivation to be accurate was influenced by the social pressure created by a group of inaccurate individuals. It was observed that when a task of low difficulty a task with an obvious solution was presented to a subject, the subject's motivation to perform the task correctly lessened the impact of social pressure created by a group who answered the task incorrectly.
In other words, even though everyone else answered differently, the subject knew the correct answer to the task with confidence and therefore felt less pressure to agree with the incorrect group. However, when the difficulty of the task was increased considerably, the subject looked to the group for cues on how to answer.
Again, the group answered incorrectly on purpose; it appears that when we are unsure of how to perform a task or how to behave, we may take comfort in agreeing with a large number of other people.
In a second study, confidence of the group was manipulated; the individual was again given a difficult task where the group answered incorrectly. This time, the group expressed very low or no confidence in their answer to the task. It was observed that the group's lack of confidence had no significant effect on the individual subject's reliance on the group for social cues.
Another study examined levels of conformity across age groups; it was predicted that older adults would feel less impact from social pressure than would young adults.
Subjects were asked to judge geometric shapes an unemotional stimulus and facial expressions an emotional stimulus by providing them with labels from a set given to them such as circle or square for the shapes, and anger or fear for the facial expressions.
The question addressed by the researchers was whether or not the two age groups would be affected by surrounding social pressure when asked to judge the stimulus. The hypothesis was confirmed; older adults showed less reliance on social pressure to make their judgments.
It would appear that as individuals age, they gain a better sense of judgment and independence, which is augmented by their growing experience Pasupathi, In the case of this study, both age groups were concerned with being correct, but the younger group seemed to rely more on each other when making decisions.
It is clear from these experiments that people are very concerned with being correct, leading to conformity across many situations. Social Acceptance There have been numerous studies that illustrate the ways in which human beings strive to be accepted as part of--or at least avoid being rejected by--a social group.
One such study was conducted to examine multiple reasons that college students engage in the risky behavior of playing drinking games. It was hypothesized that college students often engage in these drinking games because of an anticipated outcome, or rather, an outcome that some individuals intend to induce by participating such as new friendships, relationships, and greater popularity.
Another fascinating study examined the human fear of rejection; it was predicted that when people were asked to express their opinion on a particular topic, those who perceived themselves as holding the minority opinion would be slower to express that opinion than would the people who perceived themselves as holding the majority opinion.
Not only was this prediction found to be true, but as the perceived size of the minority group decreased, the minority individual expressed even more hesitancy in the expression of their opinion.
Interestingly, this slow response did not appear to be affected by the strength of the attitude being expressed nor the knowledge that the subject would have to make their opinion publicly known. It appears that when people feel they belong to the minority of a group they become reluctant to express their own opinions because they can foresee negative consequences of not fitting in with the majority.Guidelines for Education and Training in Industrial-Organizational Psychology.
A PDF version of this document is available here. The SIOP Curriculum Matrix Template is available here. Obedience is a part of the foundation of society. Without obedience, naught would exist but chaos and anarchy. Without stability, productivity and the well-being of the citizens become non-existent.
Because of this, one must question how obedient society can be without losing its individuality, for. Gender-role development is one of the most important areas of human development. In fact, the sex of a newborn sets the agenda for a whole array of developmental experiences that will influence the person throughout his or her life.
Adopted by consensus in The United Nations General Assembly adopted the Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy on 8 September The strategy is . Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms. Norms are implicit, specific rules, shared by a group of individuals, that guide their interactions with others.
People often choose to conform to society rather than to pursue personal desires because it is often easier to follow the path others have made already, rather than creating a new one. Without religion we would almost certainly live in a different type of society, Religion can have great importance for a society for a variety of reasons.
Depending on the culture and governmental style it can range from a simple influence to a complete control of society.