Marjorie, five years older; and Avril, five years younger. When Eric was one year old, his mother took him and his sisters to England.
Summary[ edit ] Orwell relates what he believes to be a close association between bad prose and oppressive ideology: In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of the indefensible. Things like the continuance of British rule in India, the Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by arguments which are too brutal for most people to face, and which do not square with the professed aims of political parties.
Thus political language has to consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and sheer cloudy vagueness. Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the cattle machine-gunned, the huts set on fire with incendiary bullets: Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: People are imprisoned for years without trial, or shot in the back of the neck or sent to die of scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: Such phraseology is needed if one wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of them.
One of Orwell's points is: The great enemy of clear language is insincerity. When there is a gap between one's real and one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out ink.
The insincerity of the writer perpetuates the decline of the language as people particularly politicians, Orwell later notes attempt to disguise their intentions behind euphemisms and convoluted phrasing.
Orwell says that this decline is self-perpetuating. He argues that it is easier to think with poor English because the language is in decline; and, as the language declines, "foolish" thoughts become even easier, reinforcing the original cause: A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks.
It is rather the same thing that is happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts. Orwell discusses "pretentious diction" and "meaningless words". From these, Orwell identifies a "catalogue of swindles and perversions" which he classifies as "dying metaphors", "operators or verbal false limbs", "pretentious diction" and "meaningless words".
Orwell notes that writers of modern prose tend not to write in concrete terms but use a "pretentious latinized style" compare Anglish.
He claims writers find it is easier to gum together long strings of words than to pick words specifically for their meaning—particularly in political writing, where Orwell notes that "[o]rthodoxy Political speech and writing are generally in defence of the indefensible and so lead to a euphemistic inflated style.
Orwell criticises bad writing habits which spread by imitation. He argues that writers must think more clearly because thinking clearly "is a necessary first step toward political regeneration".Politics and the English Language Modern English, George Orwell argues, is full of bad habits.
GEORGE ORWELL POLITICS AND THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Politics and the English Language By George Orwell, This site serves Politics and the American Language, a monograph by Hans A.
Ostrom and William Haltom. In his essay "Politics and the English Language" (), Orwell wrote about the importance of precise and clear language, arguing that vague writing can be used as a powerful tool of political manipulation because it shapes the way we think.
In that essay, Orwell provides six rules for writers. Politics and the English Language" (), by George Orwell, is an essay criticizing "ugly and inaccurate" contemporary written English.
He asserted contemporary English prose causes and affects foolish thoughts and dishonest politics. Politics and the English Language is an important essay that argues against lazy language and overused phrases. Orwell expands that argument to embody the trouble he saw in the political process.