Second-hand smoke Second-hand smoke is tobacco smoke which affects people other than the 'active' smoker. Second-hand tobacco smoke includes both a gaseous and a particulate phase, with particular hazards arising from levels of carbon monoxide as indicated below and very small particulates fine particular matter at especially PM2. Radon Radon is an invisible, radioactive atomic gas that results from the radioactive decay of radiumwhich may be found in rock formations beneath buildings or in certain building materials themselves. Radon is probably the most pervasive serious hazard for indoor air in the United States and Europe, probably responsible for tens of thousands of deaths from lung cancer each year.
Do symptoms resolve when the individual is not in the building? Do symptoms recur seasonally heating, cooling? Have co-workers, peers noted similar complaints? Remedial Action Appropriate persons -- employer, building owner or manager, building investigation specialist, if necessary state and local government agency medical epidemiologists and other public health officials -- should undertake investigation and analysis of the implicated building, particularly the design and operation of HVAC systems, and correct contributing conditions.
Persistence on the part of individuals and health care consultants may be required to diagnose and remediate the building problems.
Comment The term "sick building syndrome" SBSfirst employed in the s, describes a situation in which reported symptoms among a population of building occupants can be temporally associated with their presence in that building. Typically, though not always, the structure is an office building.
Generally, a spectrum of specific and nonspecific complaints are involved.
The key factors are commonality of symptoms and absence of symptoms among building occupants when the individuals are not in the building. Sick building syndrome should be suspected when a substantial proportion of those spending extended time in a building as in daily employment report or experience acute on-site discomfort.
If is important, however, to distinguish SBS from problems of building related illness. The latter term is reserved for situations in which signs and symptoms of diagnosable illness are identified and can be attributed directly to specific airborne building contaminants. Legionnaires' Disease and hypersensitivity pneumonitis, for example, are building related illnesses.
There has been extensive speculation about the cause or causes of SBS. The ventilation system itself can be a source of irritants. Interior redesign, such as the rearrangement of offices or installation of partitions, may also interfere with efficient functioning of such systems.
Another theory suggests that very low levels of specific pollutants, including some discussed in the preceding pages, may be present and may act synergistically, or at least in combination, to cause health effects.
Humidity may also be a factor: Other contributing elements may include poor lighting and adverse ergonomic conditions, temperature extremes, noise, and psychological stresses that may have both individual and interpersonal impact.
The prevalence of the problem is unknown. A World Health Organization report suggested that as many as 30 percent of new and remodeled buildings worldwide may generate excessive complaints related to indoor air quality In a nationwide, random sampling of U. When SBS is suspected, the individual physician or other health care provider may need to join forces with others e.
Both are known human carcinogens.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's caninariojana.com may cause diseases, allergies and even death to humans; it may also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural or built environment. For more information: Air Quality Health Index Variation across British Columbia (PDF) - An overview of the Air Quality Health Index and how it has been developed to provide British Columbians with an estimate of short-term health risk . Air-pollution levels have been trending downward progressively over the past several decades in southern California, as a result of the implementation of air quality–control policies. We.
Their carcinogenic effects are not immediate but are evident only years, even decades, after prolonged exposure. Asbestos Once widely used in structural fireproofing, asbestos may be found predominantly in heating systems and acoustic insulation, in floor and ceiling tiles, and in shingles in many older houses.
It was formerly used in such consumer products as fireplace gloves, ironing board covers, and certain hair dryers. When asbestos-containing material is damaged or disintegrates with age, microscopic fibers may be dispersed into the air. Over as long as twenty, thirty, or more years, the presence of these fibers within the lungs may result in asbestosis asbestos-caused fibrosis of the lung, seen as a result of heavy occupational exposure 58, lung cancer and pleural or peritoneal cancer, or mesothelioma For lung cancer, the effect of tobacco smoking in combination with asbestos exposure appears to be synergistic by approximately fivefold Occupational exposure may also be associated with increased risk of gastrointestinal malignancies.
Attention should be focused on those populations with continual exposure and documented health effects, e. Products and materials containing asbestos are not necessarily so labeled. Construction professionals or state or local environmental agencies may inspect and analyze suspect materials.
Manufacturers of particular products may also be able to supply information. The risk of disease depends on exposure to airborne asbestos fibers.
Average levels in buildings are low, and the risk to building occupants is therefore low. Removal of asbestos is not always the best choice to reduce exposure.
The EPA requires asbestos removal only in order to prevent significant public exposure and generally recommends an in-place management program when asbestos has been discovered and is in good conditionFor more information: Air Quality Health Index Variation across British Columbia (PDF) - An overview of the Air Quality Health Index and how it has been developed to provide British Columbians with an estimate of short-term health risk .
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is the air quality within and around buildings and caninariojana.com is known to affect the health, comfort and well-being of building occupants.
Poor indoor air quality has been linked to Sick Building Syndrome, reduced productivity and impaired learning in schools..
IAQ can be affected by gases (including carbon monoxide, radon, volatile organic compounds), particulates. Air Quality Index The AQI is a national index, so the values and colors used to show local air quality and the levels of health concern are the same everywhere in the United States.
Air Quality in America: A Dose of Reality on Air Pollution Levels, Trends, and Health Risks [Joel M. Schwartz, Steven F. Hayward] on caninariojana.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Polls consistently show that most Americans believe air pollution has been getting worse and will continue to worsen in the future.
Recent data. The map above is not able to show all state air quality monitors. To see the whole set, go to the Air Quality Now tab below and click on DEQ's Air Quality Index which will bring up a map with many additional state monitors. Round icons represent permanent state air quality monitors, triangular icons represent temporary smoke monitors (when deployed).
The results are based on the maximum air quality index measured across all stations in each region. Download DAQI regional data. Air pollution alerts. Here are some of the ways you can stay updated with UK-Air. Recorded information. 55 66 RSS air quality forecast.
RSS latest measure-ments by station. RSS latest measure-ments by .